This story gives a glimpse of Jakarta's challenges with growth and demands for a better infrastructure (with focus on traffic).
From DKI Jakarta towards JABODETABEK
1945 = 600.000 people
2017 = over 30 million in the metropolitan area (estimated over 1 million people in Central Jakarta)
= 50 times higher in 70 years
Jabodetabek is the official and administrative definition of the metropolitian area surrounding Jakarta. The name is taken from the first letters of each city's name: Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi. Those are the surrounding areas of the City of Jakarta with an area of 6,392 sqkm.
The City of Jakarta has a high population density of 14.500 people per sqkm, while the metro area has a density of 4.500 people per sqkm. (Comparison: Berlin has a density of 4.000 people/sqkm)
The 2010 census found that all areas within the DKI Jakarta had a positive growth rate in the last decade, with the slowest growth in Central Jakarta.
Due to failing urban planning measures and corruption in the past, Jabodetabek is confronted with problems concerning transportation, waste disposal, energy, infrastructure, water access, flodding and pollution and many more. The current government under Jokowi Widodo.
Population in Indonesia beneath poverty line
Especially in the 1970s when the growth rate was above 20% the government had to act and introduced repressing measures regarding migration.
1970 there was a plan to make Jakarta a „closed city“ meaning, that migrants were required to show certificats from employers or schools. If they didn’t have a job after 6 month, they had to go back to their villages. But this only lead to increasing fringes.
1969 the government started a transmigration program with the goal to move millions of Indonesians from the densely populated inner islands (Java, Bali, Madura) to the outer, less densely populated islands to achieve a more balanced demographic development; the programm selected families who had experience in aggriculture and were able to read and write. at the beginning the families were supported with homes, land and seeds. but programm failed due to exploitation of the rainforest, the land was low in nutrients and it came to fights with the original inhabitants. around 2.5 million people where part of the relocated, but many of them came back to Java high in debts. After reducing the scale of the program constantly it has recently been abolished by preisden Joko Widodo.
Migration from Java:
Jokowi‘s government has developed a modernisation Master Plan for Jabodetabek (even though there were smiliar plans before). But he has signalled a more aggressive commitment to the project. He has provided far more funding. He was able to increase the budget by 86%. Also he constitutes the modernisation of Indonesia’s infrastructure to a more central component of his political agenda. In 2016, the administration spent comparatively little energy on education, health, or other social programs. Infrastructure development has become a hallmark of the current government in a way it never did before.
The final report of the master plan outlined the current situation of Jabodetabek:
- many areas are vulnerable to flood and desaster prevenention infrastructure is insufficient
- DKI Jakarta has the highest share of population (37%) followed by MPA South (24%)
- The population of the middle class in Indonesia is estimated to increase from about 82 million people in 2009 to 204 million people in 2020
- among various urban infrastructures, public transport is one of Jabodetabek‘s weak points
Main infrastructure projects:
First MRT - North to South Corridor (expected to be completed in 2019)
The old structure of the last government's project: Monorail
New Priok Container Terminal I (one of three terminals is finished)
Flyover Roads (completed this year)
- Currently the transportation system highly depends on road traffic with (98%). An estimated 70% of the city’s air pollution comes from vehicles.
- Everyday are 300 new cars and 1000 new motorcycles registered.
- The Government introduced in 2004 TransJakarta a Bus Rapid Transit. The buses run in dedicated lanes and ticket prices are subsidized by the regional government. The system was losing passengers due to unpredictable service frequency, worsening travel times and poor maintenance of the infrastructure and vehicles, after a campaign to ‚sterilize‘ the lanes improved travel times, reports indicate patronage had increased by 20,000 per day.
- Only 7 percent of the capital’s 4,500 miles of road have sidewalks, according to local government data. Many of them are in bad condition or used by motorcycles.
- Bikes have only 2.3 percent share of transport mode. Lack of infrastructure and high risk for cyclists are reasons that make cycling unattractive
Woman defending her space on the sidewalk.
Long-distance railways connect the city to its neighbouring regions as well as cities throughout the island of Java. But the railways are in poor condition and have often delays.
- The first high-speed rail to connect Jakarta with Bandung is currently under construction which is expected to start operation in 2019.
JSC Control Room
JSC Control Team
The main focus of JSC is to help the Government of DKI Jakarta Province to build a modern and innovative city which is able to manage all city resources efficiently and effectively by using Information Technology. The goal is to increase the prosperity of people in Jakarta. Here, IT students could learn some applications developed by the JSC team, including the e-budgeting, e-transportation, flood sensors on some rivers, and the Qlue application. Qlue is used by people to report any problems to DKI Jakarta so that the government can respond to them promptly.
The Asian City: Processes of Development, Characteristics and Planning